# Linear Quadratic Regulator & H∞ Approaches

## Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) Approach

**The LQR method entails two distinct phases:**

- The first stage is to create the control input-calculating state feedback gain matrix K.
- In order to define the relative significance of the state and input variables in the cost function, the weighting matrices Q and R must be designed as the second step.

### LQR Method Design Process

### The Advantages & Disadvantages of the LQR Method

## The H∞ Approach

**The H∞ method entails two distinct stages:**

- The maximum value of the system's transfer function over a given frequency range is defined by designing the H∞ norm of the system.
- The second stage involves designing the driver to reduce the system's worst-case behavior.

### The H∞ Design Methodology:

There are a number of stages in the H∞ approach's planning process. The system's state-space model must be derived first. The next step is to check the system's behavior for stability and controllability. The next step is to define the performance specifications, which include defining the shape of the desired closed-loop transfer function and the maximum permissible attenuation of disturbances. The H controller is then developed by minimizing the worst-case performance of the system within allowed disturbance attenuation limits using an optimization problem. Methods like linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), convex optimization, and numerical algorithms can all be applied to the solution of this optimization issue. The H∞ controller is then applied, and the performance of the closed-loop system is assessed via simulation or experimental testing.

### The Benefits and Drawbacks of the H∞ Approach

Handling system uncertainties and disturbances is a strength of the H∞ method. This makes it especially helpful in applications like industrial process and aerospace system management, where uncertainties and disturbances cannot be precisely modeled. The H∞ approach also makes it possible to include performance requirements explicitly, which can be used to guarantee the stability and robustness of the closed-loop system.

However, there are also drawbacks to the H∞ method. As it is a worst-case design method, it can potentially lead to conservative designs. This conservatism may lead to overly complicated controllers or subpar closed-loop performance. For large-scale systems, the H∞ approach may also be computationally demanding due to the complexity of the ensuing optimization issue. Finally, the H∞ approach, being founded on linear systems theory, may not be applicable to systems with nonlinear or time-varying dynamics.

### H∞ and H2 Regulations

Two common robust control methods for designing controllers for uncertain systems are the H∞ approach and the H2 approach. The H2 method, like the H∞ approach, is founded on linear systems theory and seeks to minimize the system's energy within the bounds of the transfer function of the closed-loop system. The H2 method deviates from the H∞ method in that it does not take robustness against uncertainties and disturbances into consideration.

The performance factors used in the H and H2 approaches are one of the main distinctions between the two. The H strategy minimizes the system's worst-case efficiency across a given frequency range, while the H2 strategy minimizes the system's energy consumption. various closed-loop system behaviors and control efforts can result from using various performance criteria.

In addition, the planning processes for the H and H2 methods are distinct. Both the H and H2 methods entail solving an optimization problem with constraints on the maximum allowable disturbance attenuation and the transfer function of the closed-loop system, respectively. While the H strategy may produce cautious designs, the H2 strategy has the potential to yield more liberal plans.

In conclusion, the H and H2 methods are complementary, and the right one will be chosen when the needs of the application and the system are taken into account. Systems that are vulnerable to uncertainties and disturbances benefit from the H∞ approach, while systems in which energy minimization is a priority benefit from the H2 strategy.

## Distinctive features of the LQR and H∞ methods

The LQR and H∞ methodologies diverge in a number of key respects. While the H∞ approach is used to design controllers that are robust to uncertainties and disturbances in the system, the LQR approach is an optimal control strategy used to design controllers that minimize a quadratic cost function.

The performance criteria also vary significantly between the two methods. Using a quadratic cost function, the LQR method optimizes the system's performance to strike a good balance between tracking accuracy and the amount of work required to maintain it. The H∞ approach, on the other hand, seeks to guarantee the system's robustness in the face of uncertainties and disturbances by minimizing the worst-case performance of the system over a defined frequency range.

The LQR method also presupposes that the system's behaviors are well understood and amenable to modeling via a state-space equation. The H∞ approach, on the other hand, can be used to design controllers for systems that are prone to parametric uncertainties or unmodeled dynamics, because it accounts for such uncertainties.

## Applications Of the LQR Approach

The LQR method can be used in many contexts, including those of aircraft, automobiles, and robotics. Controllers for airplanes, spaceships, and rockets are developed using the LQR method in the aerospace business. Controllers for autonomous cars, electric vehicles, and hybrid vehicles are all designed using the LQR method. The LQR method is applied in robotics when designing processors for mobile and manipulator robots.

The LQR method's strength lies in its capacity to deal with input/output constraints. This makes it ideally suited for uses like the control of aircraft, spacecraft, and robotic systems, where the inputs and outputs of the system are subject to physical constraints.

### Uses of the LQR Methodology In Aerospace Engineering

Aerospace engineers have put the LQR method to use in the management of everything from aircraft and spacecraft to missiles. The LQR method excels in aerospace engineering due to its flexibility in dealing with limitations placed on the system's inputs and outputs. This makes it ideal for uses like the control of aircraft and spacecraft, where the inputs and outputs are subject to physical constraints.

The LQR method has been applied to the construction of aircraft controllers for regulating altitude, heading, and speed. The LQR method has also been applied to the construction of controllers for attitude control, orbit control, and rendezvous and docking in the realm of spacecraft control. The LQR method has also been implemented in missile guidance systems to develop controllers that keep the projectile on course with minimal input from the operator.

By delivering robust and effective controllers that can handle constraints and uncertainties, the LQR method has established itself as a valuable control technique for aerospace systems.

### Uses of the LQR Methodology In Robotics

The LQR method has been used extensively in the robotics industry to develop processors for a wide range of robot types, including mobile robots, humanoid robots, and manipulators. In robotics, one of the main benefits of the LQR approach is that it can be used for robot management despite the presence of input and output constraints.

The LQR method has been implemented in manipulator control to develop controllers that guarantee precise trajectory monitoring with minimal control input. Similarly, the LQR method has been implemented in mobile robot control to create controllers that keep the robot on the predetermined path while evading impediments and using as little control input as possible. The LQR method has also been implemented in humanoid robot control to create steady walking and motion devices.

With its ability to produce robust and effective controllers that can deal with constraints and uncertainties, the LQR approach has established itself as a useful control technique in robotics. It is expected that the LQR method will continue to discover novel uses in the field as the number of robotics applications grows.

## The H∞ Approach in Practice

Many industries, such as aerospace, automotive, and industrial management, make use of the H∞ approach. The H∞ approach is utilized in the aerospace industry when developing satellite and rocket systems. The H∞ approach is used in the auto business to design vehicle controllers for EVs, PHEVs, and AVs. The H∞ approach is used to create controllers for production lines, electrical grids, and chemical reactions in industrial control.

Handling system uncertainties and disturbances is a major strength of the H∞ method. This makes it especially helpful in applications like industrial process and aerospace system management, where uncertainties and disturbances cannot be precisely modeled.

### Using the H∞ approach In Control Systems

Designing robust controllers that can deal with uncertainties and disruptions is a common task in the field of control systems, and the H∞ approach has seen a lot of use. The H∞ approach in control systems has the benefit of guaranteeing a minimum level of performance regardless of the system's inherent uncertainties. Since the parameters of the system may change over time or be subject to external disturbances, this feature makes it ideal for such uses.

The H∞ approach has been used to develop controllers for a wide range of processes in industrial control systems, including those in chemical plants, power plants, and factories. Controllers for the engine, the suspension, and the stability of a car have all been designed using the H∞ approach in automobile control systems. The H∞ approach has also found application in aeronautical control systems, specifically in the development of flight-control devices.

In sum, the H∞ approach has been shown to be a potent and effective control technique in a number of contexts, resulting in robust and dependable controllers that can cope with uncertainties and disturbances.

### Using the H∞ approach In Signal Processing

In signal processing, the H∞ method has been widely implemented for the purpose of designing robust filters and equalizers that can cope with uncertainties and noise. Providing guaranteed levels of performance despite uncertainties in the system is one of the main benefits of the H∞ method in signal processing, making it especially useful in situations where the signal is corrupted by noise or other disturbances.

The H∞ method has been utilized in the creation of filters and equalizers for use in a wide range of digital signal processing applications, including those dealing with audio and video processing, communication systems, and radar systems. The H∞ approach has also been used to develop controllers for equalization and interference suppression in communication system control. The H∞ approach has also been implemented in video and picture processing to develop noise-cancelling filters without degrading the original data.

With its ability to create effective filters and equalizers that are resilient against uncertainties and noise, the H∞ approach has established itself as a useful technique in signal processing. The H∞ approach is likely to continue to find novel uses in the field, given the rising demand for robust signal processing techniques in a variety of contexts.

## Wrap-Up

To sum up, LQR and H∞ approaches are two popular methods for designing regulators for linear systems. While the H∞ approach is used to design controllers that are robust to uncertainties and disturbances in the system, the LQR approach is an optimal control strategy used to design controllers that minimize a quadratic cost function. Both H∞ methods have benefits and drawbacks, and selecting one over the other relies on the needs of the system and the nature of the application.